Chapter-4: One God

Islam urges deep rooted faith in Allah on the basis of knowledge and research and leaves wide open, the thought process for the human intellect to penetrate as far it can reach. “Say: “It is He Who has created you (and made you grow) and made for you the faculties of hearing seeing feeling and understanding: little thanks it is ye give.”(Qur’an;67:23); “They (non believers) will further say: “Had we but listened or used our intelligence we should not (now) be among the Companions of the Blazing Fire!”(Qur’an;67:10). Islam stresses to firmly believe in Allah (one God), the Lord of the worlds, submit to Him and worship Him only. Qur’an repeatedly draws the attention of man towards existence of God through various ‘Signs’ and other arguments. Islamic philosophers of the middle ages did not address the problem of existence of God in any direct fashion. This maybe because in the context of Muslim thought, the existence of God was a prerequisite. However it is evident that the orderly and wonderful phenomena of nature could not be purposeless and accidental. It is pertinent to note that the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners.

Monotheism and Polytheism

Muslims put their trust in Allah and they seek His help and His guidance. God is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. A Muslim  has to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment and Qadaa and Qadar, which is related to the ultimate power of Allah. Qadaa and Qadar means the Timeless Knowledge of Allah and His power to plan and execute His plans. Allah is the sole Divine; that is He is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Manager of all affairs. Allah is the only true God and every other so-called deity is false. He is One (Ahad), that is, He has no associate in His divinity, His Godhood, His names, or in His attributes. Allah says about Himself: “He is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth and all that is in between them, so worship Him and be patient in His worship; do you know any equal to Him?” (Qur’an;19:65); “Allah there is no God but He, the Living, the Everlasting. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the Earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not encompass anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His throne extends over the heavens and the Earth, the preservation of them does not burden Him; He is the High, the Great” (Qur’an;2:255); “He is Allah, there is no god but He, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighty, the Subduer, the Sublime. Glory be to Allah above what they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper. His are the most beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the Earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise” (Qur’an;59:22-24).
Attributes of God:
 The Attributes, Words and Signs and Mercies of Allah are manifest in His Creations, and can never be fully set out in human language, however extended human means may imagined to be, Allah says: “Say: “If the ocean were ink (wherewith to write out) the words of my Lord sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord even if we added another ocean like it for its aid.”(Qur’an;18:109). However all that is mentioned about Allah’s attributes, whether briefly or in detail and affirmatively or negatively, based on Qur’an, and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) are final some are also mentioned in Bible. It also agrees with the practice of the previous generations of Muslims and the rightly guided scholars who came after them. It is obligatory for a Muslim to take the texts of the Qur’an and the prophetic traditions conceding Allah’s attributes at their face value and to interpret them in a way that is suitable to Almighty Allah. The practice of those who twist the meanings of these texts and understand them in a way that was not intended by Allah and His messenger be rejected. The practice of those who make them devoid of their meanings as conveyed by Allah and His Messenger should also be rejected. As per Qur’an; “He is the One Who has revealed to you the Book. Some of its verses are decisive (muhkmat) they are the foundation of the Book – while others are allegorical (mutshabehat). Those whose hearts are infected with disbelief follow the allegorical part to mislead others and to give it their own interpretation, seeking for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. Those who are well grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in it; it is all from our Lord.” None will take heed except the people of understanding.”(Qur’an;3:7). Allah has most perfect attributes;  Allah can be called by any name, signifying the attributes of perfection, suitable to Him. Allah says: “Say: “Invoke God, or invoke the Most Gracious: by whichever name you invoke Him, (He is always the One-for) His are all the attributes of perfection(Asma’ Allah al-Husna), …”(Qur’an;17:110 also 20:8, 59:24, 7:180).

Allah is Arabic name of God. “ELAH” is another name for God, used about 70 times in the Old Testament. It is very similar to Arabic “Allah” or ‘Eelah’.  Elahh [hla]‘ (Aramaic; el-aw’): corresponding to God. In Hebrew [hwla] ‘elowahh el-o’-ah; probably prolonged (emphat.) from [la]‘el ale; a deity or the Deity:–God, god. Again, when combined with other words, we see different attributes of God. Some examples: Elah Yerush’lem – God of Jerusalem: (Ezra;7:19), Elah Yisrael – God of Israel: (Ezra;5:1), Elah Sh’maya – God of Heaven:(Ezra 7:23). Elah Sh’maya V’Arah – God of Heaven and Earth: (Ezra;5:11). Jehovah is popular name of God mentioned in Old Testament.

Pope Declared that ‘Allah’ and ‘Jehovah’ are the names of same God:
The Arabic Bible uses Allah as name of God. In his weekly general audience in late May of 1999, Pope John Paul II addressed Muslims in a series discussing “inter-religious dialog.” He quotes from the 1994 Catechism of the Catholic Church n. 841 which states, “… together with us they (Muslims) adore the one, merciful, God.” The Pope and many other religious leaders today, who are being wooed into the ecumenical movement, are accepting the idea that the God of the Koran and the God of the Bible are one and the same. [Issue Date: January/February 2000]According to Hadith, narrated Abu Huraira: Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and Allah is Witr (one) and loves ‘the Witr’ (i.e., odd numbers). (Sahih Bukhari Hadith number 419, Volume.4 ). The Ninety nine beautiful names of Allah (Asma’ Allah al-Husna), based upon His attributes are mentioned in the Islamic traditions (compiled by scholars from Qur’an and Hadith). There is no fixed authentic list of 99 names of God; one compilation which includes many common names and attributes of God are:  The All Beneficent (Ar-Rahman), The Most Merciful (Ar-Rahim), The King, The Sovereign (Al-Malik), The Most Holy (Al-Quddus), The Peace and Blessing (As-Salaam), The Guarantor (Al-Mu’min), The Guardian, The Preserver (Al-Muhaymin), The Almighty, The Self Sufficient (Al-Aziz), The Powerful, The Irresistible (Al-Jabbar), The Tremendous (Al-Mutakabbir), The Creator (Al-Khaliq), The Rightful (Al-Bari’), The Fashioner of Forms (Al-Musawwir), The Ever Forgiving, (Al-Ghaffar), The All Compelling Subduer (Al-Qahhar), The Bestower (Al-Wahhab), The Ever Providing (Ar-Razzaq), The Opener, The Victory Giver (Al-Fattah), The All Knowing, The Omniscient (Al-`Alim), The Restrainer, The Straightener (Al-Qabid), The Expander, The Munificent (Al-Basit), The Sufficient, Who Suffices (Al-Kafi), The Exalter (Ar-Rafi‘e), The Giver of Honour (Al-Mu‘ezz), The Giver of Dishonor (Al-Mudhell), The All Hearing (As-Sami‘e), The All Seeing (Al-Basir), The Judge, The Arbitrator (Al-Hakam), The Utterly Just (Al-‘Adl), Subtle, Unfathomable, (Al-Latif), The All Aware (Al-Khabir), The Forbearing, The Indulgent (Al-Halim) The Magnificent, The Infinite (Al-Azeem), The All Forgiving (Al-Ghafur), The Grateful (Ash-Shakur), The Sublimely Exalted (Al-Aliyy), The Great (Al-Kabir), The Preserver (Al-Hafiz), The Nourisher (Al-Muqit), The Reckoner (Al-Hasib), The Majestic (Al-Jalil), The Bountiful, The Generous (Al-Karim), The Watchful (Ar-Raqib), The Responsive, The Answerer (Al-Mujib), The Vast, The All Encompassing (Al-Wasse‘e), The Wise (Al-Hakeem), The Loving, The Kind One (Al-Wadud), The All Glorious (Al-Majid), The Restrore – The Reviver (Al-Ma’ied), The Witness (Ash-Shaheed), The Truth, The Real (Al-Haqq), The Trustee, The Dependable (Al-Wakil), The Strong (Al-Qawaie), The Firm, The Steadfast (Al-Matin), The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper (Al-Wali, Al Maula), The All Praiseworthy (Al-Hamid), The Healer (Al-Sha’fii), The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All (Al-Mubdi, Al Badi’), The Salvator-The Reliever (Al-Kashif), The Giver of Life (Al-Muhyi), The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer (Al-Mumit), The Ever Living (Al-Hayy), The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All (Al-Qayyum), The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing (Al-Wajid), The Illustrious, The Magnificent (Al-Majid), The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity (Al-Wahid), The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible (Al-Ahad), The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable, The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting (As-Samad), The All Able (Al-Qadir),   The All Determiner, The Dominant, (Al-Muqtadir), The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward (Al-Muqaddim), The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away (Al-Mu’akhir), The First (Al-Awwal), The Last (Al-Akhir), The Manifest, The All Victorious (Az-Zahir), The Hidden, The All Encompassing (Al-Batin), The Master, The Lord of Universe(Rab-ul-Ala’min), The Encompasser (Al-Mahsi), The Most Kind and Righteous (Al-Barr), The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting (At-Tawwab), The Avenger (Al-Muntaqim), The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins (Al-‘Afuww), The Compassionate, The All Pitying (Ar-Ra’uf), The Owner of All Sovereignty (Malik-al-Mulk), The Lord of Majesty and Generosity (Dhu-al-Jalali wa-al-Ikram), The Equitable, The Requiter (Al-Muqsit), The Gatherer, The Unifier (Al-Jami‘e), The All Rich, The Independent (Al-Ghanaie), The Enricher, The Emancipator (Al-Mughni), The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender (Al-Mani’e), The Authority (Sultan), The Propitious, The Benefactor (An-Nafi‘e), The Light (An-Nur), The Guide (Al-Hadi), The Incomparable, The Originator (Al-Badi), The Ever Enduring and Immutable (Al-Baqi), The Heir, The Inheritor of All (Al-Warith), The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower (Ar-Rashid), The Patient, The Timeless (As-Sabur). Some of His attributes are explained briefly:- [Also see;  & 99 Names]
The Cherisher & Sustainer (Lord) of All the Worlds: Allah is The Sustainer’ (Rabb) of all the worlds. The Arabic word  Rabb  embraces a wide complex group of meanings not easily expressed by a single term in another language. It comprises the ideas of having a just claim to the possession of anything and, consequently, authority over it, as well as of rearing, sustaining and fostering anything from its inception to its final completion. Allah is exclusively the sole fosterer and sustainer of all the creations – objective as well as conceptual – and therefore the ultimate source of all authority: “Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer (Rabb al- a’lamen) of the Worlds”(Qur’an;1:2); “Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds.”(Qur’an;45:36); “Cast thy burden upon the LORD, and he shall sustain thee: he shall never suffer the righteous to be moved.”(Psalms;55:22). He is the Lord of all, He creates and nourishes all, the obedient believers as well as the unbelievers, transgressors because this is the world of trial, the full accountability would be on the Day of Judgement.
The Omnipotent, the Wise: He is Omnipotent: “He is the Supreme Authority over His servants; and He is the Wise, the Aware.”(Qur’an;6:18 ). Allah is not living with His creatures on earth, but He is closer to human than their  jugular vein: “It was We who created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”(Qur’an;50:16). It implies that Allah knows more truly the innermost state of human feeling and consciousness than does their own self; “Hast thou not seen that Allah knoweth all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth? There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but He is with them Wheresoever they may be;…”(Qur’an;58:7); “Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence?”(Psalms;139:7).
The Omniscient: Allah possess absolute & infinite knowledge: “He Alone has the keys of the unseen treasures, of which no one knows except Him. He knows whatever is in the land and in the sea; there is not a single leaf that falls without His knowledge, there is neither a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book.”(Qur’an;6:59); “Allah alone has the knowledge of the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in the wombs (a blessing or a curse). No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-aware” (Qur’an;31:34). The Qur’an points to the rich sources of knowledge in the whole universe. “..The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a Record. My Lord never errs nor forgets”(Qur’an;20:52); “ For a man’s ways are before the eyes of the LORD, and he watches all his paths.”(Proverbs;5:21).
The Creator: He is the Supreme Creator:” He created the Heavens and the Earth in six eons, then He settled Himself on the throne; He manages everything” (Qur’an;10:3). His “settling on the throne” means, sitting in a way that is becoming to His Majesty and Greatness. Nobody except He knows exactly how He is sitting on His throne. He is with His creatures while He is still on His throne. He knows their conditions, hears their sayings, and sees their deeds. He regulates and governs it, as a king does, whose authority is unquestionably recognized; hence He is not, therefore, like the gods of Greeks, and pagans, who were imagined to be in a world apart, careless of mankind, or jealous of mankind. He does not do injustice to anybody, because His fairness is perfect. He is not unaware of his servants’ deeds, because He has perfect supervision and comprehensive knowledge. He provides for the poor and the broken. God Most High was a Creator before He created and a Provider before He bestowed provision. Closeness to God Most High and remoteness from Him do not refer to any spatial distance, great or small, nor do they refer to the nobility or humility in His sight. Rather the one obedient to Him is close to him, in indefinable fashion. Closeness, remoteness approaching all in fact refer to God’s action towards man (i.e., it is not man who in the strict sense defines relation to Allah; it is rather Allah who determines that relation). Proximity to God in Paradise and standing before Him are similarly realities of indefinable modality. Allah has no equal because His Attributes are perfect: “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him. He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing” (Qur’an;42:11); “no slumber or sleep seizes Him” (Qur’an;2:255), because His life is perfect and eternal. Bible also mentions: “Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary, his understanding is Unsearchable.”(Isaiah;40:28). However there is dichotomy with in Bible: “for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.”(Exodus;20:18).
The Uncreated: Allah knows, but not as human knows; He has power, but not as human have power. People speak by means of the speech organs and sounds, whereas God Most High speaks with neither organs nor sounds. Sounds are created, and the word of God Most High is uncreated. He is a thing, but unlike other things; by saying “thing,” it is intended merely to affirm His reality. He has neither body nor substance, neither accidental property nor limit, neither opposite nor like nor similitude. A human being require some material to make some thing i.e. a carpenter requires wood, nails tools and other material to make a table.  God Most High creates things out of nothing and He has knowledge of them in pre-eternity, before their creation. The Prophet (peace be upon him), said: “His veil is light. Had He removed it, the sublimity of His countenance would have burnt all that His sight reached” (Muslim and Ibn Majah). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said about the Dajjal (the anti-Christ) that “he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed” (Bukhari and Muslim). It is beyond the human senses to perceive this.
The First and the Last, The Evident and The Immanent: According to Qur’an: “He is the First and the Last the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things.” (Qur’an;57:3); “They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end.”(Psalms;102:26-27). Allah is Evident in so far as there is ample evidence of His existence and providence all around the universe. On the other hand, Allah is Hidden in so far as human intellect cannot grasp His essence nor can He be seen in the present world. Narrated by Abu Hurairah; The Prophet (peace be on him) said: “Thou art the First, so that there was nothing before Thee; and Thou art the Last, so that there is nothing after Thee; and Thou art Evident, (or Ascendant) so that there is nothing above Thee, and Thou art the Hidden, the Knower of hidden things, so that there is nothing hidden from Thee.” (Extract from Sahih Muslim, Hadith Number: 1253). According to some Christians, Jesus, claimed divinity when he said: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (King James Version; Revelation; 1:8) These are the attributes of God. However in the Revised Standard Version, biblical scholars corrected the translation and wrote: “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”(RSV;Revelation;1:8). A correction was also made in the New American Bible produced by Catholics. The translation of that verse has been amended to put it in its correct context as follows: “The Lord God says: ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the one who is and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.’ ” Hence after this correction, it becomes evident that this was a statement of God wrongly attributed to Jesus. The Bible also mentions, God as Invisible (Job;23:8-9) and Un-searchable (Job;11:7; 37:23;Psalms; 145:3; Isaiah; 40:28).
Not Similar to His Creatures: The Muslims reject the approach of those who exaggerate, who gave physical interpretation that makes Allah similar to some of His creatures. All that He assigned to Himself or what His Messenger described Him with, of names and attributes is to be believed as such. All what He negated about Himself or what His Messenger negated about Him is to be negated. That negation implies the affirmation of its perfect opposite. What He or His Messenger did not mention about Him is not to be discussed. It is essential to adhere to this approach, because what Allah affirmed or negated concerning Himself is a statement He made about Himself. He knows Himself best. His words are most just and trustful, and people cannot know everything about Him. What Allah’s Messenger affirmed or negated about Him is a statement that he made about Allah. Besides knowing Allah better than anyone, he is the most truthful, sincere, and eloquent among people. Thus, in what Allah said and what His Prophet (peace be upon him) said concerning His names and attributes is the truth, knowledge, and clarification. Therefore, the believers do not hesitate in accepting it. However, Islam reject two concepts: Firstly to say or believe that Allah’s attributes are similar to those of his creatures; and secondly to say or believe that Allah’s attributes are like such and such because; “..there is none like unto Him”(Qur’an;112:4); “..there is none like me in all the earth.”(Exodus;9:14).
The Unique: He is unique. Certain attributes of Allah like His Hand, His Face a Self (nafs); are part of “unknown-allegorical”(Mutashabehat, Qur’an;3:7)  which can not be perceived by human senses and no question can be raised concerning their modality (bila kayf). It cannot be said that His hand represents His power of His bestowal of bounty, because such an interpretation would require a negation of an attribute. Rather, His hand is an attribute, of unknowable modality, in the same way that His anger and pleasure are two attributes of unknowable modality. Allah has a glorious and dignified face: ” All that is on earth will perish; There will remain the Face (Self) of your Lord, majestic and splendid” (Qur’an;55:26-27). Human can not perceive it. Allah has two generous hands: “No, both His hands are wide open; He spends how He pleases” (Qur’an;5:64); “They do not esteem Allah with the esteem that is due to Him. The whole Earth will be His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and the Heavens will be rolled up in His right hand. Glory be to Him and exalted is He above that which they associate with Him” (Qur’an;39:67). Human can not perceive it. Allah said to Noah: “And build the ark under Our eyes as We reveal” (Qur’an;11:37). He gives sovereignty to whom He pleases and takes away sovereignty from whom He pleases; He exalts whom He wills and He abases whom He wills. In His hand is all good and He is powerful over everything. “…There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him; He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing” (Qur’an;42:11); “Wherefore thou art great, O LORD God: for there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears.”(2 Samuel;7:22  )
The Merciful: The Mercy of Allah is the one of the grandest themes of the Qur’an. To contemplate these boundless gifts of God, the verse: “In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”: is placed before every Chapter (Sura) of the Qur’an (except the ninth), and repeated at the beginning of every act (even of routine nature like eating, reading, working) by the Muslims who dedicate their lives to God, and whose hope is in His Mercy. The Arabic words “Rahman” and “Rahim” translated as; “Most Gracious” and “Most Merciful” are both intensive forms referring to different aspects of God’s attribute of Mercy.  The Arabic intensive is more suited to express God’s attributes than the superlative degree in English.  The latter implies a comparison with other beings, or with other times or places, while there is no being like unto God, and He is independent of Time and Place. Mercy may imply pity, long-suffering, patience, and forgiveness, all of which the sinner needs and God Most Merciful bestows in abundant measure. But there is a Mercy that goes before even the need arises, the Grace which is ever watchful, and flows from God Most Gracious to all His creatures, protecting them, preserving them, guiding them, and leading them to clearer light and higher life.  He accepts of repentance of believers due to the ‘Mercy’, which He has decreed upon Himself, He says: “When those who believe in Our revelations come to you, say: “Peace be upon you. Your Lord has decreed mercy upon Himself. If anyone among you commits evil because of ignorance and thereafter repents and mends his ways; you will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.”(Qur’an;6:54 & 85:14). God’s attribute of Mercy is also highlighted in Bible at Exodus;34:6-7 and many other places: “The earth, O LORD, is full of thy mercy: teach me thy statutes.”(Psalms;119:64); “Therefore turn thou to thy God: keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually.”(Hosea;12:6); “For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee.”(Isaiah;54:7); “But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,”(Ephesians;2:4).
The Just: He helps all with justices and fairness: “The fact is that Allah is your Protector and He is the best of all helpers.”(Qur’an;3:150); “Rest assured that Allah does not wrong anyone even by an atom’s weight. If someone does a good deed He increases it many fold and also gives an extra great reward on His own.”(Qur’an;4:40). He is Sustainer of humanity whether believers or non believers and all other creatures:  “We bestowed on all – these as well those – out of the bounties of your Lord; the bounties of your Sustainer are not confined.”(Qur’an;17:20). He answers the prayers: “Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer)…!”(Qur’an;40.60). His Messenger told, that He descends to the near sky before the last third of every night and says: “Who prays to Me and I will answer his prayers? Who asks Me and I will give him? Who asks My forgiveness and I will forgive him?” (Bukhari and Muslim). It is mentioned in Bible: “Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict.”(Job;37:23). On the Day of Judgment He will judge among His people. He is the Doer of what He wills. True knowledge based on clear proof and indisputable evidence acquired by experience or experiment or by both.
He Does What He Wills: To Him belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth, He does what ever He Wills:“ Whenever He intends a thing, He needs only to say: “Be,” and it is.”(Qur’an;36:82); “There is nothing whatever like unto Him, He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing. To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He enlarges and restricts provisions to whom He wills. Surely He has knowledge of everything” (Qur’an;42:11-12); “He creates what He pleases. He gives, to whom He wills, females, and He gives, to whom He wills, males, or He couples them, males and females; and He makes whom He wills barren. Surely, He is the Knowing, the Powerful”(Qur’an;42:49-50). Despite being All Powerful, God does not wrong the mankind: “Lo! Allah wrongs not mankind in aught; but mankind wrong themselves.”(Qur’an;10:44).
The Subtle, Unfathomable, The All Aware: Allah is Latif,  fine, subtle, so fine and subtle as to be invisible to the physical eye; so fine as to be imperceptible to the senses; figuratively, so pure as to be above the mental or spiritual vision of ordinary men but at the same time He is aware of all things. It is beyond the capability of human eye to see God In this world, Allah says: “Vision cannot perceive Him, but He perceives all vision. He is the Subtle, (Latif, Incomprehensible), the All-aware” (Qur’an;6:103). Bible also confirms that God can not bee seen (John;1:18, 1Timothy;6:16, Exodus;33:20).Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) requested for the vision of Allah: “And when Moses came to Our appointed tryst and his Lord had spoken unto him, he said: My Lord! Show me (Thy self), that I may gaze upon Thee. He said: Thou wilt not see Me, but gaze upon the mountain! If it stand still in its place, then thou wilt see Me. And when his Lord revealed (His) glory to the mountain He sent it crashing down. And Moses fell down senseless. And when he woke he said: Glory unto Thee! I turn unto Thee repentant, and I am the first of (true) believers.”(Qur’an;7:143). God Most High will be seen in the Hereafter, visible to the believers in Paradise with their corporeal vision as mentioned in Qur’an: “Upon that day (Day of Judgment) some faces shall be radiant, gazing upon their Lord”(Qur’an;75:22-23). This is said without any implication of anthropomorphism, or any notion of quality or quantity, for there is not a fixed distance between Him and His creation (to permit any comparison); “Behold, I go forward, but he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him; on the left hand I seek him, but I cannot behold him; I turn to the right hand, but I cannot see him.”(Job;23:8-9).
Belief in Allah, His names, and His attributes instills in the individual the love and glorification of God that result in obeying God’s instructions and avoiding His prohibitions. These are the means of achieving ultimate happiness in this life and the hereafter for both the individual and the society: “Whoever, male or female, does righteous deed, while believing, We shall assuredly grant him a goodly life, and We shall reward them according to the best of their deeds” (Qur’an;16:97).
Experience Existence of God through His Signs,Works:
Allah is not visible to human being, then the question arises; How can human know about His existence? Allah answers: “Say: “Look at whatever exists in the heavens and the earth.” Signs and warnings do not benefit those people who do not believe.”(Qur’an;10:101);“There are many signs in the heavens and the earth which they pass by; yet they pay no attention to them!”(Qur’an;12:105). The importance of signs can be explained by a simple parable:  If one is present at the seaside and observe some foot marks on the sand, straightaway it comes to mind that some one has walked through this area. No one would say that these foot prints have been made just by coincidence or by chance through interaction of sand, sea waves and the wind. As it is per sure with the common sense that the precise foot marks with particular shape, size and intervals are only made by the human foot. If some one ponders over it, then from the size, depth and interval of foot prints one can even find out, weather the person who left those foot prints was a child, woman or male. The experts with more knowledge in this field can reveal much more information like weight, age etc. In rural areas of South Asia, it is a common practice to get the services of a foot print expert (Khojee) to trace the thief, who by observation follows the foot prints to locate the thief. From one sign (foot mark) so much can be revealed without having seen the individual with eyes. Similarly the forensic experts by picking up samples of blood, hair, cloth and finger prints from a site of crime can determine the presence of specific person by matching the DNA or finger prints, although no one would have seen the individual at the site of crime. It is through these ‘signs’ that the presence of and individual at a particular place is established. While various arguments mentioned earlier i.e.  Cosmological, Teleological, Ontological, Moral and Religious Experience do support, the Islamic traditions demands the people to look and ponder over signs of Allah, which will enable them to comprehend the existence of God.
Hence the existence of Allah, the Supreme Creator, is evident from the numerous signs all around ; what one has to do is just to ponder over them and use common sense. The galaxies, the stars, sun, moon the earth, their rotation, movement, the balance of planets through gravitational system, changing of day to night, rains, winds, life, death and many more, all this can not exist by chance. There is some one All Powerful who has created all this with a purpose and ordained laws to govern the universe; He is Allah, The Mighty, All Powerful. The Qur’an draws human attention towards these signs: “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe.”(Qur’an;45:3);“And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth) are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky and revives therewith the earth after its death and the change of the winds are Signs for those that are wise”.(Qur’an;45:4-5);“And He has subjected (made of service) to you (human) as from Him all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold in that are Signs indeed for those who reflect.”(Qur’an;45:13). “It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout.  He causes the living to issue from the dead and He is the one to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is Allah; then how are ye deluded away from the truth?”(Qur’an;6:95).

The Creator

  1. Chapter-1 Introduction
  2. Chapter-2: Existence of God
  3. Chapter-3: Monotheism and Polytheism
  4. Chapter-4: The Only One Unique God
  5. Chapter-5: The Ever Living Sign
  6. Conclusion

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One God:

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